Month: August 2017

Fashion in the Sixties and Seventies

Fashion is influenced by many factors but often reflects what is happening in society at the time. The textile collection at the Museum includes garments that reflect these changes.  An exciting time of change was the 1960s and 1970s when the way people dressed was an obvious sign of shifting attitudes.

1. Merle Higgie dress

 Mrs Merle Higgie wore this evening dress of orange chiffon with stitched orange flowers on the sleeves in the 1970s. It was created by Camette, a New Zealand design company based in Auckland.
Ref: 1995.60.2

In the early 1960s, Western economies and populations were booming. Young peoples’ income was the highest it had been since the end of World War II. This increased economic independence for youth, fuelled a new sense of identity and the need to express it. The dramatic changes started largely in the USA and Europe with styles influenced by the youth sub-cultures of the Beatniks (who rejected the mainstream in favour of artistic self-expression) and the Mods (because they listened to modern jazz music). The Mods in particular helped focus the tastes of young people everywhere, and inspired the look of bands like The Who and The Beatles. The fashion industry quickly responded by replicating their styles, creating designs for the young fans to imitate their heroes. This decade was the first era when young peoples’ clothes were different from those worn by their parents.

New Zealand was usually several years behind the world in terms of fashion, but with the advent of television, young Kiwis were immediately able to copy what was happening overseas. In 1962 there were only 23,000 television licence holders nationwide, but this increased to more than half a million by 1968. Television shrank the world, and by the mid-1960s, New Zealand young folk were wearing the same styles as their contemporaries overseas.

This decade saw traditional dress codes broken with women wearing trousers and showing more and more leg. The mini-skirt, popularised by English designer, Mary Quant, quickly earned its place as the decade’s most iconic look. Others chose to bare very little by choosing the maxi skirt. By the 1970s skirt length had become the midi; mid length, around the knee.

It was not just the hem line that changed. Colour in clothing also went to extremes. What had been a muted or pastel colour pallet until the late 1950s became bright and bold, and many people were wearing combinations of colours and patterns that intensified their startling effects.

The late 1960s saw the beginnings of the hippie movement when bellbottom pants first came into fashion, becoming even more popular during the 1970s. The styles from the later 1960s tended to be more androgynous and quite free flowing. They mimicked the social mind-sets of the era and were inspired by eastern cultures and political activities, such as the Vietnam War.

The 1960s also saw a move to incorporate the new man-made materials developed during World War II and for the space programme. Perspex, PVC, polyester, acrylic, nylon, rayon, Spandex, vinyl and others were fabrics of choice for new young designers wanting to create easy-care outfits that were eye-catching and fun.

Whanganui produced some of its own designers who became influential, on the world stage, as well as nationally. Whanganui-born Philip Shortt entered the Benson and Hedges Fashion Design Awards, New Zealand’s major competitive fashion event that ran for 34 years between 1964-1998, three times, from 1969 to 1971, all with success; he received merit awards in 1969 and 1970 and won the Supreme Award in 1971. Shortt studied at the Fashion School, Royal College of Arts in London. As he established his career he went on to dress Margaret Thatcher and designed the women’s uniform for the British Constabulary.

Rosalie Gwilliam, also from Whanganui, entered the Benson and Hedges Award competitions throughout the 1960s and 1970s, with considerable success. She is well represented, with 26 examples of her work, in the Eden Hoar collection of New Zealand fashion; this was developed by a farmer from Nasby and was the largest private collection of New Zealand fashion in existence.

2. Annette Main dress

 This black crepe and gold thread cocktail gown was created by Michael Mattar of Taumarunui, and was purchased and worn by former Mayor of Whanganui, Annette Main, in the 1960s.
Ref: 2013.9.2

The fashion industry of the 1960s not only changed what was worn, but how clothing was purchased. Old-style department stores were abandoned for boutique experiences. At the same time, there was more mass production, which made keeping fashionable more affordable. Whanganui businesses catered specifically for the new youth market with two new shops called Teen Scene and La Boutique, both in Victoria Avenue. Taumarunui could also boast a top-class fashion store, that of Michael Mattar’s Haut Couture boutique. At the height of his fame in the 1960s, women would travel from Auckland and Wellington to purchase his exquisite cocktail gowns.

 

By Trish Nugent-Lyne, Collection Manager at Whanganui Regional Museum.

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The Wilson Pill Company

In the early 20th century, Mr Samuel Wilson held a secret. His ancestors lived in a small village in England where a local doctor was not available at short notice so it was up to the residents to keep themselves and others healthy. They developed a medicine which proved to be useful in preventing a number of ailments.

Mr Wilson inherited the recipe and brought it with him when his family came to New Zealand. He made it for his family, and their health and strength generated interest amongst friends and associates, so he started making it for them as well. Several locals were so impressed with the panacea that they implored Mr Wilson to sell it, but he refused, insisting on making it himself and providing it free of charge.

After living for about two years in the Whanganui district, Mr Wilson finally agreed to put his pills on the market. A syndicate was put together, and James Alfred Young began the process of sourcing quotes to have the pills manufactured and packaged ready for the market.

While in town on 10 July 1907, Mr Wilson was thrown into a lamppost on Victoria Avenue when his horse shied. He died the next day, but his wife Lavinia took on the project and worked with Mr Young to continue marketing the pills.

Mr Young was sure the pills would bring great riches. His sales pitch was so effective that he raised too many investors, and the syndicate was legally required to become a registered company.

1 Benoni White ad

The advertisement designed by Benoni White, as appeared in the Wanganui Chronicle on 16 January 1908, p7

While waiting for official registration, Mr Young ordered the first batch of pills from the Dunedin branch of Kempthorne Prosser and developed a marketing plan. He commissioned artist Benoni White to design an advertisement and was in contact with 40 newspapers about advertising.

Another tactic offered a more personal approach, outlined in a letter dated 16 July 1907. “It has occurred to me that a good idea to work Wilson’s Pills would be to get a really smart girl, who could talk, to interview each store, chemist etc … It seems to me that a ‘taking’ young woman could do this work better than a man and what is of very great importance she would not cost so much.”

The Wilson Pill Company finally began business on 18 November 1907 with 70 shareholders, £5,000 of investments and no debt. The pills were distributed to shops and pharmacies throughout the North Island, accompanied by an intense advertising campaign.

The pills claimed a myriad of cures: biliousness, constipation, boils, carbuncles, eczema, backache, indigestion, liver troubles, headache, dyspepsia, lumbago, rheumatism, as well as curing blood and stomach disorders and stimulating the liver and kidneys. The original recipe no longer exists, so testing these claims is not possible.

2 Medicine ad

An advertisement for Wilson’s Pills ‘backed by high modern medical testimony’, Wanganui Chronicle 6 January 1908, p2

In January 1908 Mrs Ramsay became the Company’s Lady Canvasser and distributed the pills to throughout the North Island, earning £2 per week (around $330 today).

By the end of 1908 the Company was chasing debts. Mrs Lavinia Wilson had moved to Perth to live with family there, and received a letter from the Company stating there was little demand on the market for her family’s pills and they had not sold enough to cover marketing expenses.

Things went from bad to worse. In June 1910 the Wilson Pill Company was summonsed to a legal hearing over incomplete registration of their annual list and summary with the Joint Stock Companies. The matter was eventually resolved but some expenses were incurred.

The Company encountered problems with employees claiming for advertising work they had not completed, and then had to write off over £19 ($3,000) of bad debt for goods dispatched to their canvasser who then disappeared. Shareholder meetings were not meeting quorum and the Company was only gaining 6p per box of pills sold, with their total income at the end of 1913 sitting at a little over £17.

The Directors were loath to spend any more shareholders investments. The Wilson Pill Company was formally wound up on 26 May 1914 with £214 in the account which, after paying legal fees, was returned to shareholders at around 10s per £1 invested. The remaining stock and the rights to the formula were sold to the Manager of the Wanganui Chronicle for £17/2-.

 

Written by Sandi Black, Archivist at Whanganui Regional Museum.

Cycling Ladies

The development of new technology often brings about the greatest changes in fashion. In the 1890s, the introduction of the bicycle led to significant changes in women’s fashion. Prior to this decade, women had always worn skirts or dresses whose design followed strict rules regarding appropriateness and modesty, and which were often very heavy and restricting.

Many women wanted to ride bicycles but this was considered unsuitable. While it was acceptable for women to ride side-saddle on a horse, riding a bicycle was deemed almost indecent, certainly shocking!

3. Lady on bike

Illustration of a woman cyclist wearing a tailored jacket and split skirt, 1894.  Ladies Standard Magazine, April 1894.

The first women to ride bicycles in New Zealand were twins Bertha and Blanche Thompson who in 1892, along with several other young adventurous women, formed the Atlanta Cycling Club, especially for women, in Christchurch. Suffrage leader Kate Sheppard, then in her forties, became a member and she and Bertha also served on the ACC committee. Christchurch did not view the ACC with approval; at times, the twins’ older brothers had to accompany the women cyclists to ward off stone-throwing spectators.

Women in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries wore very long skirts, which were not only difficult, but dangerous to wear while cycling. Many early lady cyclists had bad accidents when the hems of their skirts caught in the bicycle chain. A solution had to be found. Since decency, at that time, dictated that a woman’s legs had to be covered, many cyclists adopted a split-skirt. This was an adaptation of a garment designed by Mrs Amelia Bloomer, one of the pioneers of the Dress Reform Movement, in the mid nineteenth century. Mrs Bloomer was ridiculed when she and other women attempted to introduce healthier and more practical styles of clothing for women such as knickerbockers, or bloomers, for women engaged in active pastimes.

2. Split skirt

Split skirt from the cycling costume.  Ref: 1973.88b

The split skirt gradually became acceptable as a cycling garment because it was designed to look like a regular skirt. The split skirt was further adapted over time. Later versions began to resemble trousers, never worn by European women before.

1. Cycling costume

Lady’s cycling costume, 1890s. Ref: 1973.88

The Museum has in its collection a wonderful woman’s cycling costume, made in the 1890s. It is a smart and practical outfit for the new activity of cycling. The costume comprises a tailored jacket and divided cycling skirt, both made of dark charcoal wool twill, fully lined with heavy black silk. The costume was professionally fitted and sewn; there is no maker’s mark in either the jacket or the skirt. It’s in excellent condition; perhaps it wasn’t used very much.

 

By Libby Sharpe, Senior Curator at Whanganui Regional Museum.

Dandelion Coffee

Dandelion coffee is actually an infused tea, but it is used as a coffee substitute, having the appearance and, to a degree, the taste of coffee. It is made from the dried, roasted and ground root of the dandelion plant. It is important that the right dandelion roots are used, from the Taraxacum species, distinguishing it from other weed plants that look like yellow daisies. The roots of large healthy dandelions plants are harvested and processed into coffee. It has become a popular health or tonic drink, sometimes as an alternative to true coffee, especially in the USA.

Dried dandelion root coffee was being produced commercially at Ūpokongaro in the nineteenth century by farmer William Caines. In 1853 Caines had acquired 105 acres of land on what is now the Kaiwhaiki Road. He cleared the heavy bush gradually and ran sheep and cattle. He used a punt and waka for transportation between his farm and Whanganui.

1. Dandelion Coffee Tin

A tin of Taraxacum, Dandelion Coffee, made by William Caines of Upokongaro 1880-1890 (ref: 1951.41.3)

Finding ways of ensuring a cash flow was important for settler farmers in the district. Brick-making was another source of income for Caines. His bricks were made of clay from his property and rammed by hand into wooden moulds. He also made white-pine roofing shingles, and later tōtara shingles, sold for 12/- per thousand, delivered.

And the coffee seemed very promising. Caines grew the dandelions in rows in his garden, just like any other crop. After the plants had flowered they were dug and the roots dried. They were then ground in a hand-operated wheat mill, said to have been brought to New Zealand by one of the British Army regiments stationed in the district. A large iron flywheel was attached to give momentum to the actual grinder on the main shaft, the raw material being fed through the funnel as the grounds dropped from the mill chute. The machine could be operated by one person at the crank-handle.

The mill is in the Museum collection, as are two one pound tins of the coffee, which is a deep brown colour and has still has a distinct “coffee” aroma. Tins of “Pure Dandelion Coffee” were produced from 1880 to about 1890, sold for the most part in the Ūpokongaro area. Although there is no record of the amount produced, it appears that there was a reasonable demand for it.

2. Dandelion Coffee Label

An unused Taraxacum label (ref: 1802.1110.2)

The coffee product was named “Taraxacum”, Taraxacum officinale being the botanical name of the dandelion. The label, printed locally by A D Willis Printers of Wanganui, states that the product was grown and prepared by “William Caines, Pikopiko, Upokongaro, Wanganui.” The label also declares that the dandelion coffee as prepared by Mr. William Caines, “Contains all the medicinal virtues pertaining to the plant, which are of an opening and cleansing quality and therefore very effectual for obstructions of the Liver, Gall and Spleen, and Diseases that arise therefrom. It is also beneficial in cases of the Urinary Organs, being powerful in cleansing imposthumes and inward ulcers in the urinary passage and, by its drying and temperate quality, heals them. In Progressing Consumption, the use of the Pure Dandelion Coffee will give the sufferer great relief.”

 

Libby Sharpe is Senior Curator at Whanganui Regional Museum.