Cave Crabs of Bali

As a museum curator, I’ve done field work in lots of places, but this was the first time I’d had to wear a purple sash.

The sash and sarong were hired for 5,000 rupiah (about 50c) from a shop by the main road on the island of Nusa Penida, near Bali, Indonesia. I was about to venture into a cave to look for endangered crabs, but because the cave is also a popular Hindu temple you have to be properly attired.

1. Entrance Giri Putri

 You are warned when entering Giri Putri cave that it is a sacred place.

The Giri Putri temple used to be just a smallish hole on a hillside; you have to crouch, clamber, and shuffle to enter it, before the ceiling rises and you’re in one of several large caves. Today, there are steps, buildings, white-clad priests praying, and a visitor’s book.

Back in 1993 Australian biologist Tony Whitten explored Giri Putri, and was struck by the number of crabs scuttling about on the cave floor. He collected some, and they turned out to be not one, but two new species, dubbed Karstarma emdi and K. balicum. Freshwater crabs like these can be found in several cave systems in south-east Asia. They have long legs for feeling their way about in total darkness. Isolation and time leads to speciation, and the two species in Giri Putri seem to be found nowhere else but this small cave.

4. Hindu Temple at Giri Putri

Giri Putri is a working Hindu temple, with worshippers present at all hours, leaving food offerings and coexisting with insects and bats.

Unfortunately, they’re under threat. Giri Putri is now a busy temple with artificial lighting everywhere, large fans to keep the air moving, lots of concrete and tiled floor and rows of benches and altars. Whitten noted that in every visit he made there were fewer crabs, and in the hour I spent searching with a headlamp in the dark corners of the cave I didn’t see any at all. I asked one priest if the crabs were there. He told me “sometimes”. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is pushing for better monitoring of the crab population, and the temple authorities seem keen to work to minimise human impact, so here’s hoping.

There’s plenty of other life in Giri Putri, though. I kept disturbing bats which zipped here in there in silence, sometimes an inch from my face, reminding me that I didn’t get a rabies vaccination before coming to Bali. The walls of the cave were crawling with invertebrates, including large Periplaneta cockroaches, camel crickets that looked just like the cave wētā back in New Zealand and good-sized whipscorpions.

2. Cockroach

The cave was full of large winged cockroaches in the genus Periplaneta.

Back home, I uploaded the photos I’d taken with my phone to NatureWatch, and asked Mark Harvey at the Western Australian Museum what he thought. Mark identified them as tailless whipscorpions in the family Phrynidae, probably the genus Phrynus. This was interesting, because almost all species of Phrynus are found in the New World, through Mexico and Central America. The sole exception is a species Mark himself named and described, Phrynus exsul from the island of Flores, Indonesia, thousands of kilometres away from its closest relatives.

3. Whipscorpion

Whipscorpions are also known as whipspiders. They are arachnids, but are neither scorpions nor spiders.

Only one problem: Bali is 400 km away from Flores. So either these whipscorpions are Phrynus exsul and a new record far west of where they were first observed, or they’re an undescribed species of Phrynus.

Whipscorpions are not especially inconspicuous. Giri Putri is right by the main road, and a popular tourist destination. Nusa Penida is a short ferry ride from Bali, which has millions of tourists a year. And it seems that in over 20 years nobody has thought to collect one of these critters, take it to an expert, and find out if it’s an undescribed species or not. This is the plight of the tropics in miniature: stuffed full of biodiversity which is disappearing faster than we can discover and put names to.

 

Mike Dickison was the Curator of Natural History at the Whanganui Regional Museum.

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The Bumpy Road to Wedded Bliss

Some fields of science have been around for millennia – there have been mathematicians ever since humans ran out of fingers and toes to count on. Others are more recent. Phrenology, the study of an assumed relationship between the size and shape of the human skull and individual or racial characteristics, is unusual in having a precise start date. It was announced to the world of medicine in 1796 by the German doctor Franz Joseph Gall.

In the following two centuries Gall’s ideas were elaborated on by a large number of followers, including criminologists, anthropologists and self-declared racists. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a devotee and his creation Sherlock Holmes relied on phrenological principles to deduce from the height and curve of his forehead that his nemesis Professor Moriarty was a criminal mastermind.

L0002360 Photograph: `Phrenology', a ceramic head

 A model of Fowler’s Phrenology, showing the layout of bumps and what they indicate. Source: Public Domain.

It is hard to find a practising phrenologist these days, but the discipline was once highly thought of in Whanganui. The Chronicle reported in 1879 on an examination of the prophet Te Whiti by one Professor Frazer, an eminent phrenologist. “The organs of memory are full,” he declared, “and the eye indicates plenty of language. His strong point, and the one most likely to influence, is his combination of spirituality, veneration and hope… The portion of the brain in which these organs are located is not only large, but active.”

1-os-fowler.jpg

A portrait of Professor O S Fowler, Phrenologist and Lecturer. Source: Public Domain.

Once phrenological credentials were established, other opportunities beckoned. Orson Fowler, declared by a pamphlet in the Whanganui Regional Museum to be “acknowledged by all classes as the most distinguished exponent now living of the science of phrenology”, evidently felt qualified to extend his wisdom to “the mutual relations of the sexes”. The flyer promotes his 1870 book Sexual Science which examines “that great code of natural laws by which the Almighty requires the sexes to be governed in their mutual relations”. Knowledge of these laws, it contends, is “of the highest importance, and it is the general ignorance of them among all classes which swells the list of diseases and misery in the world”.

3 Fowler's Great Work

Headline of the flyer advertising O S Fowler’s Great Work. Ref: 1802.8272

The book is described as “pure and elevated in tone; eloquent in its denunciations of vice and forcible in its warnings against the secret sins which are practised with impunity in every community.” As you might expect, it provides practical advice, including “how to make a right choice of husband or wife; to judge a man or woman’s sexual condition by visible signs; to keep wives healthy and avoid sickly wives; to keep a husband faithful and avoid discord; to avoid the evils attending pregnancy; to manage children; to recognise the signs of self-abuse and cure it; and to raise healthy and vigorous girls fit to be wives and mothers”. It also offers useful information on how to promote the growth of the female bust.

Unfortunately the Museum does not hold a copy of Sexual Science, originally on sale at AD Willis bookshop for 25 shillings. Modern readers will have to make do with Eat, Pray, Love.

 

Frank Stark is Director of the Whanganui Regional Museum.

Te Whakaokiokinga – “Eternal Rest Grant Unto Them …”

The Whanganui Regional Museum (WRM) opened to the public in 1895 and since then,= hundreds of thousands of taonga (treasures) from all cultures have been presented to be looked after in perpetuity for the whole rohe (region). But for the contents of one small room in our Museum, eternal care is the opposite of what we are wishing to achieve.

Many museums around the world have kōiwi tangata (skeletal human remains). Our Museum is no different. These tūpuna (ancestors) were gathered by various means over the last century or so. They may have eroded from overhangs or dunes, they may have been accidental finds during land developments, from archaeological excavations, from trading and also from being consciously dug out of urupā (graves) by looters looking for taonga to steal.

Our late Museum Kaumātua (elders), Henry Bennett and Matiu Mareikura, resolved that all tūpuna would be returned to their people, or buried here if no identifying information was available. Unfortunately, they both died in 1998 before the Museum had begun repatriation.

In 2006 Ngāti Apa led the Museum’s first repatriation after they were made aware that there were tūpuna from their rohe. Eleven tūpuna were returned for reburial at Parawanui in Manawatū, 49 years after they were deposited in the Museum.

In 2010 the request to bury all kōiwi tangata was again taken to the Museum’s governing bodies by the Museums new Kaitiaki Taonga Māori. She had previously helped her iwi of Ngāti Rangitāne ki Te Wairau repatriate 56 tūpuna from Canterbury Museum back to Te Wairau (by Blenheim), after 70 years of continually petitioning that institute. She wanted to ensure that repatriation of tūpuna held at WRM would not include any of the trauma that Rangitāne had experienced.

1. Ceremony of repatriation

 Spending time with kōiwi before re-interment, January 2016.

Guided by iwi, and funded by Te Puni Kōkiri, a strategy was developed, which included Te Whakaokiokinga, our Human Remains Repatriation Policy. Our policy has major points of differences: actively seeking to repatriate or bury all tūpuna, utilising tikanga (protocols) Whanganui, and repatriating all taonga robbed from graves, back to their respective hapū and iwi.

In January 2016 over 80 individuals were buried at Aramoho Cemetery after a decision was made to reinter kōiwi from Whanganui, and also those with no known background. Most were Māori, but there were also some of European and Indian origin. Te Papa and Cleveland Funeral Home also brought remains from Whanganui for this mass burial. The plots were sponsored by Ngāti Tūpoho and Cleveland Funeral Home.

In March 2018, a female tupuna was repatriated. She and her living entourage of mainly kaumātua were welcomed onto Rānana Marae before taking the final journey back to Tawhitinui (on the opposite bank upstream of Rānana), 68 years after she was taken.

Seven of our longest residing tūpuna returned home to the Bay of Islands in April. They had arrived here in 1898. Five Museum staff and board members were supported by the local Kaumātua Kaunihera and whānau from Ngāti Hinemanu and Ngāti Paki of Otaihape (Taihape) to return these tūpuna home. They were hosted by Ngāti Manu of Kāretu Marae, near Kawakawa, in what all described as a humbling, moving and life-changing experience.

2. Carrying tupuna from Museum

 Supportive hands carry kōiwi from the Museum for re-interment, January 2016.

This significant work is only achievable because of support received from some wonderful people. Marty and Marilynn Vreede sponsored hundreds of dollars’ worth of beautiful harakeke paper to help “dress” the burial boxes, kaumātua from near and far have supported this endeavor, and our spiritual protection and guidance has been provided by Te Whakataumatatanga Mareikura, Marie Waretini and our stalwart kaumātua, John Maihi.

No matter how or why kōiwi, or any human remains, arrived at any museum in the world, no matter whether or not we know who they are or where they are from, there is no denying that this is somebody’s son or daughter. No-one ever laid their parent, grandparent, grandchild or friend to rest in the hope that they would one day be disturbed to end up on display somewhere or in a box on a shelf. No matter which culture you belong to, respect for the dead, burial rites and rest is a given.

We may not have played a part in how they arrived here, but we can be part of the resolution to grant them eternal rest.

 

Āwhina Twomey is Kaitiaki Taonga Māori and Kaiwhakaako at the Whanganui Regional Museum

Is handwriting a lost art?

Writing may arguably be one of the most important inventions of humankind. For centuries writing was a means for humans to record history, ideas and discoveries, and to communicate with each other.

Thought to have originated in Mesopotamia around 3,200 BC, writing has undergone a mass of technological development to get where it is today. Handwriting has been evident in many forms: inscribing with tools on stone, leaf, wood, wax, papyrus and parchment and in more recent times, on paper.

These days, people handwrite less and less. The arrival of the printing press in the mid-15th century meant multiples of transcriptions and books became easier to produce. Then the typewriter eliminated the need for composing everything by hand. In recent years the rapid development of computers and smartphones all but do away with the need to write by hand; instead we use texting, emailing and instant messaging. And that’s a pity.

1. Contract 1577

 Commercial contract dated 22 August 1577, written in fine black ink on high quality heavy parchment with three red wax seals attached on hanging strips. Written in English, the signatories are Laurence Robynson, Thomas Bell and Matthew Walker.
Ref: 1959.197.2

The Whanganui Regional Museum archives hold numerous examples of handwritten text, some as early as the 16th century, in the form of legal documents, mortgage papers, manuscripts, indentures, patents, diaries, letters, business records, cash books, autographs and personal papers. In delving into the pages of these beautifully kept records we can appreciate the art, skill and importance of hand-written text. Future generations are unlikely to stock museums with our dull digital printouts.

Why is the art of handwriting so important? Firstly, learning to write by hand is a vital component of literacy. There is evidence to suggest that more information is retained and expressed when putting pen to paper. Handwriting engages more sections of the brain than typing. Learning how to shape and link letters improves reading comprehension. Researchers have ascertained that students who hand-write their notes indeed learn more. Writing a word out, letter by letter, is a self-conscious process that requires a certain processing of information, which provides a deeper connection to thoughts than is acquired by using a keyboard. Handwriting can also increase creativity and improve memory.

2. Stewart journal 1843

 Excerpt from the field journal of Whanganui surveyor and engineer, J T Stewart, 1843.
Ref: 1805.388

Secondly, someone’s handwriting gives clues to their personality that cannot be assessed in digital text. The unique style and slope of individual letters, a flowing cursive and the expressive quality of an individually written word is something that we stand to lose. There is warmth and personality attached to a handwritten letter or note, a postcard sent home or daily diary entries.

Other than the ubiquitous handwritten shopping list, scrawled reminder note or obligatory form filling, how many of us use handwriting on a daily basis? When did any of us last write a handwritten letter to someone? Texts, emails and other forms of technical communication have taken over and caused us to neglect our penmanship. Technology has diluted our collective handwriting ability and there is a real possibility that the skill of hand-writing is dying out.

3. Oldknow letter 1789

This letter was written by H Oldknow from her school in Nottingham to her mother, in 1789. It starts with “Hon.d Madam” and ends, touchingly, with “I am / Madam / your most dutiful / and obedient Daughter”. Ref: 1966.22.1

Handwriting is unique. It has a tremendous expressive power, and more than that, handwritten text can be incredibly gorgeous. The physical act of writing takes time and can communicate that the writer cares about the content of the communication, and in turn the person intended to receive it. There is something special about sending or receiving a precious hand-written note or letter.

Pick up a pen. And write something.

Rachael Garland is the Events Coordinator at Whanganui Regional Museum.

Physiognomy – it’s written on your face

A small paper booklet held in the Museum’s archives offers an intriguing look into how some people once attempted to learn more about themselves. The title of the booklet is a mouthful: Physiognomical Chart of Character, with Illustrations of Temperaments, Facial Angles and Types of Faces, and Definitions of Mental Faculties, Together with the Explanation of Their Facial Indications. In short, the booklet covers the basics of physiognomy.

1. Physiognomical Chart

 Physiognomical Chart of Character given to Fred Allen in 1882. Ref: 2011.13.62

Physiognomy refers to the once popular practice of assessing someone’s personality based on their outward appearance. It was believed that a person’s inner character was revealed through their physical traits and could be read by deciphering the size, shape and placement of facial features on the head. Today it is known as pseudoscience and generally regarded as just a bit of fun.

Face-reading was an everyday practice in Ancient Greece and was common through to the middle ages, even earning a mention in an addition to The Canterbury Tales when a character is called out as a thief with the line, “I knowe wele by thy fisnamy, thy kynd it were to stele”.

It was dismissed by Leonardo da Vinci as having no scientific foundation, although he did believe the lines and creases on a person’s face could indicate their character, but it continued to be taught at English universities until King Henry VIII outlawed it as a vagabond’s crafty game.

Physiognomy began to increase in popularity again from the 17th century and peaked 200 years later, becoming a common subject in novels and artworks of the time. With doctors and philosophers giving it their professional backing, the police even used it to profile the appearance of criminals and warned officers to be aware of people with pointed heads, heavy jaws, receding brows and scant beards, as they were more likely to commit crimes.

New Zealand was not left out of this fad and several physiognomists journeyed here to offer lectures and consultations, including Oswald E Hugo who visited Whanganui in November 1882. His talks were attended by small but enthusiastic crowds.  Frederick Hanson Allen was one attendee, aged 18 at the time, and he received the booklet which contains the hand-written results of his consultation with Hugo.

2. Frederick Hanson Allen

 Frederick Hanson Allen in the 1880s. Ref: 2011.13.26

Fred received a low 4/10 for “memory of dates” but a high 8/10 for “memory of events”. He scored an average 6/10 for “love of life” but the high score of 8.5/10 for “sensual proclivities” came with a recommendation for restraint.

Fred was warned to “not give any thought to the other sex for several years to come”, but Hugo listed the set of features he should look for in a future bride which would indicate she had the right personality to balance his own. “ … dark hair and eyes with arched eyebrows and concave lashes, forehead full in the middle, nose straight or short, face short and broad, slim figure and rather tall, conical head”.

Fred took Hugo’s advice to wait, and was 29 when he married Ethel Elizabeth Barns in 1894, although we don’t know what she looked like.

Physiognomy fell out of favour by the early 20th century as science and technology advanced, although some programmers use physiognomical analysis in developing facial recognition software today.

 

Sandi Black is the Archivist at Whanganui Regional Museum.

Sling Camp and the Bulford Kiwi

The Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire is famous for a ring of standing stones, but the area is noted for another stone feature with an antipodean connection – the Bulford Kiwi.  How did our country’s national bird end up carved on the side of a hill in south England?

A military camp was established on the Salisbury Plain in 1897 near the town of Bulford for which it was named.  In 1903 an annexe was built to provide more accommodation. Named Sling Plantation Camp after the nearby woods, it was usually known as Sling Camp.

1. Table Runner

 A pink cotton needlework souvenir table runner, made in Sling Camp during World War I.  Ref: 2015.49

Shortly after the outbreak of World War I the camp housed many New Zealand troops and became known colloquially as ANZAC Camp. The ANZACs were soon joined by Canadian soldiers and civilians, and together they worked on building huts.  It has been estimated that if these completed huts were placed end to end the line would have measured six miles long.

Sling Camp was officially named the 4th New Zealand Infantry Brigade Reserve Camp and included four sections: Auckland, Wellington, Otago, and Canterbury. It was the chief New Zealand training camp throughout the war, serving to both prepare reinforcements and rehabilitate casualties. Senior personnel were tough on discipline and training, but also provided huts that were warmed in winter, good food, libraries and billiard rooms. A nearby cinema also provided entertainment.

The camp also housed 14 New Zealand conscientious objectors, including Archibald Baxter (father of James Keir Baxter) and his two brothers, who were sent to England to be made an example of.

In 1918 an estimated 4,300 men lived in Sling Camp. This count was greatly reduced after Spanish Influenza took hold and resulted in high casualties.

After the war ended the camp became a repatriation centre where 4,600 ANZACs waited for their turn to come home. Troop ships were in short supply and the soldiers were getting restless, so the officers introduced a series of enforced marches. The troops requested relaxed discipline; after all, the war was over. When their request was denied they rioted, looting the mess and stealing alcohol from the officers.

The riot was calmed and the men were promised there would be no consequences for their actions; however, the ringleaders were arrested and, ironically, promptly shipped back to New Zealand.

2. Postcard of kiwi & camp

 Postcard of the newly carved kiwi above Sling Camp.
Unknown artist, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18041333

The remaining men were put to work carving a large kiwi into the chalk on Beacon Hill behind the camp. The kiwi was designed by Sergeant Major P C Blenkarne, based on a sketch of a taxidermied kiwi held at the British Museum. Sergeant Major V T Low surveyed the area and extended the design of the kiwi, which covers an area of 1.5 acres.

In the 1920s the original buildings of Sling Camp were torn down and replaced. The Kiwi Polish Company took over maintenance of the chalk kiwi and paid local villagers to take care of it, more from its status as a memorial than for any advertising benefit. During World War II it was covered to prevent German planes using it as a navigation point. The Boy Scouts removed the leaf mould cover once the war was over. In the 1950s Blenkarne arranged for the British Army to maintain the kiwi, and in 2017 it received protection as a scheduled monument.

3. Photo of kiwi in 2013

 A view of the Bulford Kiwi, August 2013.
Photograph by Jonathanjosh1 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

 

Sandi Black is the Archivist at Whanganui Regional Museum.

Bees, harvestmen, wētā and more take the stage at the Entomology Conference

Recently the War Memorial Centre hosted the annual New Zealand Entomological Society conference, and researchers from all over the country congregated to share their discoveries and find out what was happening in the world of bugs.

2. Australian resin bee

An Australian resin bee Megachile ustulata. Photo: MPI, PHEL, Milen Marinov

One of the talks was very relevant to Whanganui residents. In January, a Springvale couple discovered an odd-looking bee when it stung one of them. Realising it was unusual they forwarded the corpse to the Ministry for Primary Industries. James Haw of MPI explained it was identified as a species of Australian resin bee, Megachile ustulata, never before recorded in New Zealand. MPI searched the neighbourhood for more bees but came up empty-handed. In Australia Megachile ustulata is a solitary insect that makes its home in cracks and burrows. It especially likes the hollow ends of bamboo garden stakes. It is not clear if this was a one-off incursion, or if these bees have taken up residence in Whanganui. If you’re a keen amateur naturalist, keep your eyes open for resin bees when spring arrives. Feel free to bring possible specimens to the Museum (in sealed containers, please).

4. Tree weta Brodifacoum

Tree weta feeding on Brodifacoum

One of the more intriguing talks was by Adele Parli, a Masters student at the University of Otago, working on Wellington tree wētā (Hemideina crassidens). The Wellington species is the more aggressive of the two tree wētā we get in the Whanganui area. Adele was quantifying their aggressiveness with a measure known as the “poke test”; how many times do you need to poke the wētā before it flips its lid and begins to thrash and bite? The answer for the Wellington tree wētā was generally “once”. Adele was poking wētā to test whether their behaviour changes after feeding on the poison brodifacoum. Brodificoum is commonly used for rat and mouse control in the bush and around buildings, and is the rat poison anyone can buy at the supermarket without a permit. (It’s much less humane than 1080 and takes longer to break down in the environment, but you don’t see people protesting brodifacoum outside supermarkets.) Wētā love to eat brodifacoum bait pellets, and it doesn’t kill them, but Adele suspects it may be changing their behaviour, such as how often they emerge to feed, how far they travel, and how aggressive they are.

3. Daddy long legs

A common household daddy-long-legs Pholcus phalangoides. Photo: Olaf Leillinger CC-BY-SA

As well as talks on insects, there were presentations on spiders, which are more or less an honorary insect at these events. Anne Wignall at Massey University Albany had been studying a common house spider, the daddy-long-legs Pholcus phalangoides. These are territorial, staking out one corner of a ceiling and repelling intruders. Anne was curious about whether these spiders could recognize each other; something called the “dear enemy” effect in vertebrates, where animals are more aggressive to complete strangers than rivals they’ve already encountered. Sure enough, when spiders were allowed to become familiar with each other, their territorial battles, while no less frequent, became less violent. It’s remarkable to think that a creature with such a tiny brain can remember its opponents and assess the risk of fighting.

The conference finished with Bugs in the Pub in Frank eatery. Three entomologists gave short talks on beetles, insect weaponry, and whether we should eat more bugs, and invited questions from the audience. Afterwards, beers in hand, pubgoers chatted with the scientists and looked at a selection of live insects they’d brought along – a fitting end to a grand three-day conversation on the wonders of the insect world.

 

Dr Mike Dickison is Curator of Natural History at the Whanganui Regional Museum.

The Sisters of St Joseph: Catholic Education in Whanganui

The Sisters of St Joseph are an Australasian order founded by Mother Mary MacKillop and Father Julian Tenison Woods in 1873. Mother Mary was canonised in Rome in 2010.

A distinctive habit was worn by the Sisters, unchanged until the late 1960s. The habit was a sign of their consecration to God, and served to identify their unity as a group. The distinctive blue monogram distinguished their Order. Today Sisters do not wear the habit but show a symbol of their consecration with a silver ring and a lapel pin or a pendant.

4. Sisters of St Joseph

Sisters of St Joseph – Sisters Madeleine and Bernadette Murphy, 1934.  Ref: Tesla Studios 26000

The Sisters arrived in the town of Whanganui in 1880. They immediately set up a school for girls in Victoria Avenue which they named Sacred Heart Convent. It was a mixture of primary and secondary pupils, many of the older children being boarders from surrounding rural districts. Their mission was to provide education for the children of the poor. St Joseph’s Convent School, also in Victoria Avenue, had been running since 1858 staffed by lay teachers. The Sisters also took over teaching duties there. It closed in the 1940s.

As the town of Whanganui grew, so did the need for more schools. The Sisters taught in Catholic primary education and in a secondary girls’ college, working extremely hard, and for the most part, with scant resources. But what came out of their work and persistence was a wide-reaching and comprehensive Catholic school system. It provided a first class education for every Catholic child in the district, regardless of wealth, race and social status. Those not able to afford the very modest fees were never turned away. Between 1880 and 1904 seven new schools were opened.

2. Sacred Heart Convent

Sacred Heart Convent, 1912.  Ref: SCH/Misc/40

Alongside reading, writing and arithmetic, the Sisters also taught and nurtured the tenets and practice of the Catholic faith. This is what gave their schools their distinctive character. Icons or statues featured in every school as part of the traditional Catholic devotion. A crucifix, as a symbolic representation of Christ was present in every classroom. A small container of holy water was usually placed just inside the door of every classroom.

The Sisters were always busy. Religious Sisters were not permitted by the Government to attend Teacher Training Colleges so the Sisters of St Joseph gained their Teaching Certificates by studying through the New Zealand Correspondence School. The exclusion continued until the 1970s.

Sisters taught full-time, prepared and marked lessons, cleaned their own classrooms and the convent and they taught music to private pupils. The Sisters also tended to their daily devotions and played an important role in parish work and pastoral visiting, attending retreats and contributing to community life. Despite their commitments, they were always encouraged by their Order to be creative, to extend their talents and to find some time for hobbies and recreation.

1. Villa Maria

Villa Maria Boarding House and School, once known as Hutchinson’s Folly, c1900. Ref: 1962.90.12

Villa Maria opened in Cameron Terrace in 1898 to accommodate Catholic boarders of all ages and for use as classrooms for primary pupils. The building, called locally Hutchinson’s Folly for its former owner, had plenty of rooms and extensive grounds for pupils to play in. The “Villa kids”, as they were known, moved to a new site in Guyton Street in 1944 and their little school was renamed St Monica’s. It closed in 1963.

Holy Infancy School opened in 1899 in Aramoho with 40 pupils and grew quickly with the expansion of the suburb. The school was also known as Sister Rita’s School as she worked there for 40 years and was a well-known and much loved character. In 1966 Holy Infancy was renamed St Joseph’s. In 1970 it became an Intermediate School for girls, finally closing in 1979.

In 1911 a foundation stone was laid by His Grace Bishop Francis Redwood for a new school in Oakland Avenue on St John’s Hill. In 1912 the new Sacred Heart Convent and School were opened by the Bishop. The building was 188 feet long, 100 feet wide, three stories high, and had 300 windows. Heart of matai was used for the floors in the four classrooms and the six piano rooms. The convent was lit by gas and was on town water supply. It also had tanks to store 3,000 gallons of rain water. There were balconies at the front and back which, in addition to affording the best views of Whanganui, doubled as fire escapes. By 1948 the school catered for secondary school girls only. In 1982 it was demolished.

The merging of St Augustine’s Boys College and Sacred Heart Girls College became Cullinane College in 1981. It is situated in Peat Street and continues today.

The distance from town made it difficult for pupils in Castlecliff to attend a Catholic school. When St Vincent’s School opened there in 1918, the Sisters travelled from town to school by tram until the 1930s when they were taken by car. A falling roll saw St Vincent’s amalgamate with St Anthony’s in Gonville in 1947.

3. Sacred Heart Dancing Girls

Sacred Heart Convent Dancing Girls, 1931.  Ref: Tesla Studios 23804

St Mary’s School has a long history of relocating. In 1919 the school was located at the corner of Victoria Avenue and Ingestre Street. In 1927 St Mary’s moved to Hurworth, the site of an old Anglican boys’ school in Grey Street. In 1964 the school was off again, this time to the former Marist Brothers School in Wicksteed Street. Finally, in 1988, a newly built school named St Mary’s opened in Aramoho on the former Holy Infancy site and still continues.

St Anthony’s School opened in Gonville in 1925. At first the new school building was used for Mass on Sundays. In 1930 a nearby house was purchased and converted into classrooms. A crisis in resourcing led to the Catholic schools of New Zealand whilst retaining their special character, being integrated into the national education system, supported by government. In the ensuing reorganisation, St Anthony’s was moved to Marcellin School in 1982.

A new school opened on the old Marist Brothers site at Totara Street. Marcellin School drew in the intermediate pupils from the newly closed St Joseph’s in Aramoho, as well as the St Anthony’s pupils. It is still operating today.

St Anne’s School in Wanganui East first operated from a house on the corner of Kawakawa and Nixon Streets. It opened in 1942 with just seven juniors and two young nuns. A new school was built in Raine Street in 1976. The school is still going strong today.

The Sisters of St Joseph finished teaching in Whanganui in 1988. During the course of 108 years the Sisters were involved in 10 primary schools, three of which remain today to carry forward the Catholic tradition so ably laid by the Sisters.

Now the Sisters of St Joseph’s family of schools is staffed by lay principals and staffs. The world of the Catholic nun has changed and the Sisters turn their considerable talents and experience to other forms of education. They continue to give support in their community wherever it is needed.

 

Libby Sharpe is Senior Curator at Whanganui Regional Museum and Helen Doyle is a Sister of St Joseph.

St Mary’s Church in Ūpokongaro

St Mary’s Anglican Church in Ūpokongaro makes an impression on most people passing through that small settlement, 12 km north of Whanganui. Its distinctive steeple seems a bit wonky. But it’s not – apparently it’s due to the effect of a three sided spire set on top of a four-sided tower.

The church was designed by Whanganui architect Edward Morgan and built in 1877 by local builder John Randal. The building and the section cost £344, local residents raising their share of the money through subscriptions and a successful concert at John Kennedy’s store. The Bishop of Wellington, Octavius Hadfield, consecrated St Mary’s on 20 July 1879.

2. St Mary's Church 1958

 St Mary’s Church, Ūpokongaro, 1958. Ref: 1800.755

Four stained glass panels link to the Montgomerie Family, stalwart St Mary’s parishioners. Depicting the evangelists, they were designed by Francis Philip Barraud and manufactured by Barraud, Lavers and Westlake of London in 1892. Two were installed to commemorate Captain Alexander Montgomerie, a founding member of St Mary’s and a lay reader during its early years, who died in 1890. The other two commemorate his brother Archibald W Montgomerie, who died at Mākirikiri in 1877. The Montgomerie Family is commemorated in other memorials in St Mary’s.

Young Archibald Montgomery also died in 1877. Aged only 23 and on his way home to Whanganui from a trip abroad, he was drowned in the Avalanche disaster off Portland Bill in the English Channel. The Avalanche collided with the Forest, a Nova Scotian clipper, and sank immediately. Of the 94 people who lost their lives, 21 were Whanganui residents.

Henry and Frances Montgomery, young Archibald’s parents, commissioned stained glass windows from an unidentified English firm in 1879 as a memorial to their son. The centre panel depicts the Ascension and the left panel features the storm on the Sea of Galilee with Christ walking to the rescue over the waves. The right panel illustrates St Peter trying, unsuccessfully, to walk on the waves.

The church was extended in 1892 when the chancel and the vestry were built. The bell, cast in London in 1896, still rings out today. The church has been re-roofed several times and the steeple repaired in 1953, requiring another major fundraising effort by local residents and a successful Wanganui Savage Club concert. Otherwise the building today is much the same as it was in 1901 when the interior was first lined.

The Owen family also made an important contribution to St Mary’s during its 25 years. Hayward Arthur Owen was appointed churchwarden in 1876 and kept his accounts in this book, including those for the building of the church in 1877 and the chancel extension in 1892. The book shows, in the 1881/1882 year, when Thomas Stephens was paid for the temporary vestry and Robert Hughes for painting the church and the fence.  A contribution was made to the purchase of the first parish register and the church benefitted from the proceeds of two entertainments, one in the new “Court House Theatre” in Ūpokongaro.  The overdraft, however, was still more than £92.

Philip Macdonald, St Mary’s treasurer from 1950 to 1969, was a local farmer with a love of architecture. His design for the church lychgate was later used by Whanganui architect Don Wilson to prepare plans for a memorial to Annie Eliza Cowper, formerly of Kukuta. Her son, Charles Robert Cowper, left a generous bequest to St Mary’s that enabled the lychgate to be built in 1958.

St Mary’s Sunday School was held in a room behind the church from 1904 to the early 1970s.  1938 was an important year in the history of St Mary’s. A local committee was formed in September to “inspire greater interest in church matters throughout the district”. Jessie Woon was appointed honorary secretary. Her report for that year noted that the committee had encouraged 20 local families to subscribe, had a successful shop day at McGruer’s in town and a dance in the Ūpokongaro Hall. The Church and schoolroom were both re-piled. Jessie, however, was worried about the birds having access to the church roof. The original leadlight windows in the nave were replaced in 1968.

St Mary’s is registered with the New Zealand Historic Places Trust as a Category 1 historic place. In Whanganui, it is the oldest church still on its original site.

1. St Mary's Church in matchsticks

 Model of St Mary’s Church, Ūpokongaro, made of matchsticks. Ref: 1968.60

In its collection, the Museum has a remarkable matchstick model of St Mary’s made by Jack Higgins, who lived in Ūpokongaro for over 70 years. As a hobby in his later life, he made matchstick models of local buildings in the area. His model of St Mary’s is very accurate, down to the precise alignment of the spire.

 

Fiona Hall was Acting Curator at Whanganui Regional Museum from 2002 to 2003. She curated an exhibition titled The Church by the River, and this article is based on her text.

A glimpse into the Palaeolithic

Museums worldwide preserve and record the remains of technology used by our predecessors. Use of particular materials has led to a way of categorising whole groups of people in specific places and times. We refer to people of the Palaeolithic Age, the Neolithic Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age and more recently, the Industrial Age.

Stored safely in small drawers in a Whanganui Regional Museum collection storeroom is a whole series of Palaeolithic stone tools produced by our human and pre-human predecessors. This amazing collection of stone tools was collected by H W Seton-Karr in North Africa during the late 19th century and donated to our Museum in 1935.

Looking at these tools leads to a sense of wonder about the people who made them, who they might have been and what their lives were like.

1. Oldowan stone tool

 Oldawan stone tool

One drawer holds extremely ancient, rounded chipped stones called Oldawan tools which were created by pre-human hominids over 1.5 million years ago. These very clever hominids called Homo habilis (known as the Handymen) walked on two feet, lived in Africa and used stones gathered from around them as their technological solution to practical tasks. Perhaps they were skinning animals, cutting meat, or processing plant materials. The tools are rounded stones, small enough to fit into a modern human hand and flaked at one end, probably to create sharp stone fragments to use like a knife.

2. Acheulian hand axe

 Acheulean stone hand axe

Yet another iteration of humankind, living in the period from  1.8 million to 300,000 years ago, developed much greater skill in working stone, creating teardrop shaped tools called Acheulean hand-axes, named after the valley in Europe where these tools were first discovered. These tools are shaped, working hand-axes made from stone by an upright-walking hominid species called Homo erectus (or Upright man), who used fire, created pigments and transported different kinds of stones across great distances. The remains of Homo erectus have been found associated with Acheulean tools. Acheulean tool technology lasted more than a million years and several hundred thousand of them have been discovered in numerous localities across Africa, Europe and Asia. A significant collection is held in Whanganui Regional Museum. Acheulean hand-axes are also associated with the hominid species, Homo heidelbergensis.

Stone tool manufacture was further developed by two later human species, Homo sapiens neanderthalus (Neanderthals) and Homo sapiens sapiens (us). This period of greater technological advancement is referred to as the Upper Palaeolithic. The tools are more intricately worked, with evidence of many more flakes of stone being removed, greater care in the overall shaping of the tools and a wider variety of tools created, including arrow-heads and spear-points.

3. Neolithic stone axe-head

 Neolithic stone axe head

Over thousands of years the technological skills of Homo sapiens sapiens became increasingly more complex and stone tools were created that are instantly recognisable to us today. One Neolithic stone axe-head in the Museum collection resembles a modern axe-head. It is a beautifully made tool, smooth, carefully shaped and fit for purpose. The person who made it was probably not all that different to us.

At some time in the far distant future, as with all the ages of humans who have gone before us, our discarded technology could provide a picture of who we are and how we lived.

 

Margie Beautrais is the Educator at Whanganui Regional Museum.