Christmas

Christmas Cake

Christmas. A time for family, gifts, religious observation, and of course food. And what would be better to complete the feast than a Christmas cake?

The traditional Christmas cake, as we know it today, began life as a plum porridge. Porridge was traditionally eaten on Christmas Eve as a way to line the stomach after a day of fasting in preparation for the Christmas feast. Porridge isn’t the most exciting of foods, unadorned as it is, and certainly not a celebratory meal. Soon it was smartened up with the addition of spices, representing the exotic gifts from the Three Wise Men, honey and plums or dried fruit. This mixture was then wrapped in a cloth and boiled, and hence the Christmas pudding was born.

1-sunripe-cake-fruit

Packet of fruit cake mix like this are very popular in the lead-up to Christmas (TH.3669)

This was the base recipe for an Easter dish as well, with a few additions. In the 16th century people would prepare a Christmas pudding mix, but also add wheat flour and eggs to a portion of the base to create a cake for consumption at Easter time. Over time, the oatmeal was removed from the recipe, as was the meat that was often included, and more butter, eggs, and wheat flour were added. This helped the mixture to hold together much better than the sloppy gruel and dense puddings previously experienced. Wealthy families that could afford an oven baked their mixture which produced a different consistency again, resulting in a firmer cake, which over time was dropped from the Easter menu but has remained a Christmas favourite.

The addition of marzipan and royal icing came later when Oliver Cromwell and his Puritan followers, concerned with excess, banned feasting on 5 January, observed as the last day of the Christmas celebrations. Instead, people made a special Twelfth Night Christmas cake which was laden with almonds and covered in marzipan, and feasted on that instead.

Christmas cakes are traditionally made on “stir-up Sunday”, the last Sunday before Advent; this year it was Sunday 20 November. The cake is then kept upside down and “fed” with brandy or whiskey every week before being eaten at Christmas. The alcohol and sugar act as preservatives and give the spices a chance to develop and fully infuse the cake with festive flavours.

2-edmonds-cake-recipe

Edmonds encouraged people to make Christmas cakes and provided a recipe, as per this advertisement from the Wanganui Chronicle on 5 December 1952 (2003.39.123)

Christmas cakes come in a wide a variety as presents; large, small, heavy, light, rich, meagre, soft, firm, wrapped or unwrapped. There are regional and local variations all over the world for this festive treat. The Scots make a Christmas Dundee cake which is light and crumbly, full of dried fruit, and of course, whiskey. A Japanese Christmas cake is a sponge with icing, decorated with chocolate and strawberries or other fruit. Philippine people use either a traditional English cake or a yellow pound cake with added nuts, which is then soaked in brandy and palm sugar syrup. Those in Yorkshire often don’t ice their Christmas cake, preferring to eat it with Wensleydale or cheddar cheese.

If you feel like getting back to basics, here is a 1701 recipe for a Christmas pottage:

Take of Beef-soup made of Legs of Beef, 12 Quarts; if you wish it to be particularly good, add a couple of Tongues to be boil’d therein. Put fine Bread, slic’d, soak’d, and crumbled; Raisins of the Sun, Currants and Pruants two Lbs. of each; Lemons, Nutmegs, Mace and Cleaves are to be boil’d with it in a muslin Bag; add a Quart of Red Wine and let this be follow’d, after half an Hour’s boyling, by a Pint of Sack.  Put it into a cool Place and it will keep through.

 

Sandi Black is the Archivist at Whanganui Regional Museum.

Advertisements

Merry Christmas!

Christmaswith the Sarjeant staff

We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!  From all the staff at the Whanganui Regional Museum and the Sarjeant Art Gallery, we hope you enjoy the festive season and we look forward to a great 2015!

And to help get you in the mood, check out these letters to Santa Claus from 100 year ago.  There might be a few more gadgets on the list these days but a lot of things don’t change.

The fat man cometh

15258

Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Père Noël, Father Christmas, Santa Claus… whatever you call him, he’s on the way. If your house is home to the young (or young at heart) he will be at the forefront of everyone’s mind, and his presence in the shops reminds us all we need to prepare the reindeer food.

1985.64.3

Celluloid Santa, early 20th century

When we think of Santa we think of the kind, portly, older gentleman with a bushy beard and red suit, driving a sleigh pulled by reindeer and delivering gifts to well-behaved children. This image is older than we might think and is not entirely the work of The Coca-Cola Company, but is an amalgamation of several cultures’ beliefs and legends dating back hundreds of years.

The legend originates with Saint Nicholas in the 4th century. Even as a young boy in Greece, Nicholas was very religious and he grew up to enter the Church and eventually become a Bishop. He is usually depicted with a white beard, and was well known for his generosity and his gifts to the poor. After his canonisation he became known as Saint Nicholas, patron saint of children, sailors, archers, and pawnbrokers.

 

15407In the Middle Ages children were given gifts in honour of Saint Nicholas on the eve of his name day, 6 December. During the Reformation this date was transferred to the date of veneration for the saints on 24–25 December. Martin Luther encouraged the custom of giving gifts to children on this day and tried to the divert attention to Christ rather than the saints, even attempting to introduce the Christ Child as the giver of the gifts, but Saint Nicholas remained the preferred gift-giver of the people.

1957.104.1

Sketch on the reverse of a 1917 painting

Pre-Christian Germanic peoples celebrated Yule in midwinter and many aspects of this celebration have carried through to modern times. Yule was thought to be a time of year when supernatural activity increased, the highlight of which was the ‘Wild Hunt’ where Odin led a ghostly group through the sky. Odin was a major god who was often depicted with a long white beard and a robe, usually blue, and rode an eight-legged horse named Sleipner when he visited his people with gifts. Although the hunt has changed to a dedicated delivery trip, the flight through the sky and long beard have remained, and reindeer have replaced the horse’s legs.

Yule involved other observations as well: the burning of the Yule Log; eating the Yule Boar; wassailing; and celebrating the Yule Goat. These days a few changes have evolved: we eat the Christmas chocolate log; the traditional Christmas ham remains; carolling is still carried out; but for many the celebration of the goat has been reduced to a figure in a nativity scene or a tree decoration.

Mechanical toy of Santa Claus playing the organ, originally from the Londontown Department Store then given to the Wanganui Hospital Children’s Ward before being donated to the Museum

Mechanical toy of Santa Claus playing the organ, originally from the Londontown Department Store then given to the Wanganui Hospital Children’s Ward before being donated to the Museum

Sinterklaas is a Dutch figure based on Saint Nicholas who dates back to the Middle Ages. He is portrayed as an older man with a long white beard who wears a red robe, ring, and mitre, and carries a large book which lists the behaviour of every child. Sinterklaas is celebrated by giving gifts to children on the eve or morning of 6 December, often including chocolate letters and spiced biscuits. He is still celebrated by many people today, and some children are lucky enough to receive gifts from both Sinterklaas on 6 December and Santa Claus on 25 December.

17516Father Christmas made his appearance in 16th century England during Henry VIII’s reign. He was a large, jolly man who wore green or red robes with fur lining and was the epitome of good cheer bringing peace, joy, food, wine, and festivity. He was celebrated on 25 December when England dropped the Feast of Saint Nicholas on 6 December, and the Victorian era saw a surge in his popularity.

15402Eventually, Saint Nicholas and Father Christmas merged into one being. The name ‘Santa Claus’ first appeared in an American publication in 1773, depicting a large man wearing a green winter coat. Admittedly this initial figure was a satirical dig at Dutch culture in New York but it started a new craze.

 

In 1821 a book titled A New-year’s present, to the little ones from five to twelve was published and included a poem called ‘Old Santeclaus’, illustrating an old man on a sleigh pulled by reindeer who gave presents to children. Then the well-known A Visit from St. Nicholas (commonly referred to as The Night Before Christmas) came out in 1823 and described the man we know and love: the fat, jolly, bearded man who drove a sleigh pulled by reindeer, landed on the roof, magically shimmied down the chimney with a bag of gifts and left some of them for children to discover in the morning. This biggest change from this image is that Santa has grown from a miniature elf to a full-sized man.

Pictorial Christmas Card from Aunt May to her niece Hilda, dated 1892

Pictorial Christmas Card from Aunt May to her niece Hilda, dated 1892

Many people believe that Santa wears red due to a highly successful advertising campaign by The Coca-Cola Company during the 1930s, but he has been wearing red since before the drink was invented. The Middle Ages Sinterklaas and 16th century Father Christmas both wore red, and he wore red and white robes in advertisements for White Rock Beverages in 1915. And prior to that Santa also appeared in his signature colour on the cover of Punch magazine several times, well before Coca-Cola used it.

So be good, listen out for sleigh bells on Wednesday night, and have a very Merry Christmas from everyone at the Whanganui Regional Museum.

Christmas on the Front

100 years ago, the approach to Christmas brought a mix of emotions as the preparation for celebrations was overshadowed by the largest war the world had seen.  Those at home and at the front prayed to have the war over in time to be reunited with their loved ones for the festive season but it looked dim.  Instead, a lot of people went about their preparations wondering if their loved ones were safe, and in some cases knowing they weren’t.

The Royal Naval Division Christmas Card

The Royal Naval Division Christmas Card

Families sent festive care packages to their soldiers; the standard socks, photographs, and letters containing news and gossip were accompanied by cakes, chocolate, and other small mementos that were easily sent across the world.  These small tokens helped to boost the morale of the soldiers, as well as include them in the festive season.  The soldiers themselves were not able to return the gifts at the time but many sent Christmas Cards to their families with much anticipated news of their health and wellbeing at the front.

One of the Christmas Tins organised by Princess Mary

One of the Christmas Tins organised by Princess Mary

To help with boosting morale 17-year old Princess Mary, daughter of King George V and Queen Mary, organised a public appeal to raise the funds and provide servicemen with a Christmas gift.  The appeal was a great success and £162,591 ($23,978,672 today) was raised, resulting in 2,620,019 gifts.  The presents comprised of a small brass tin featuring a profile image of the Princess with a wreath and decorative border and ‘Christmas 1914’ stamped underneath.  The contents of the tin varied but could include small gifts of tobacco, a pipe, a lighter, cigarettes, sweets or chocolate, bullet pencils, writing paper, spices, and a Christmas Card and picture of the Princess herself.  Over 400,000 of the tins were distributed around Christmas Day to those serving at or near the front, with the remainder being given out in early 1915 with a ‘Victorious New Year’ card.  The tins were held for soldiers in hospital or prisoners of war and for the parents or widows of killed servicemen, although these took a lot longer to be delivered.

On the western front the traditional Christmas message of peace, even if formally a few years away yet, was spontaneously observed with informal ceasefires and comradery among adversaries.  During December 1914, British and German troops exchanged seasonal greetings and sang carols across the trenches to each other, and some even put up conifer trees on the edges of the trenches to simulate Christmas trees.  On Christmas Eve and Christmas Day the soldiers from both sides walked across no-mans-land to greet the enemy and exchange tokens from their Christmas packages, followed by a friendly game of football or two.  The officers, knowing such fraternisation was against military law, turned a blind eye and let the soldiers have their fun.  When the voluntary ceasefire ended at midnight the soldiers went back to being enemies.

A newspaper article from the Wanganui Chronicle 4 January 1915, describing the informal Christmas Truce

A newspaper article from the Wanganui Chronicle 4 January 1915, describing the informal Christmas Truce

This truce was not widespread and some areas continued to fight, but the reports of the truce certainly made the event one of the most memorable scenes of humanity in the war.  There were attempts in the following years to recreate the Christmas Truce but the increasing bloodiness and use of poison gases removed the willingness to fraternise with the enemy.

But due to the nature of warfare not all soldiers had the opportunity to play football at Christmas time, although the nurses looking after them did their best to mark the day with as much celebration as could be mustered.  The photographs here of the Mount Felix Hospital at Walton-on-Thames show the ward decked with holly and ivy and festive banners on the walls, and even crackers being pulled.

1802.3773.15 1802.3773.18 1802.3773.20

Christmas Parades

Disney float

On Saturday 22 November at 2.00 pm Mainstreet Wanganui will be holding the annual Whanganui Christmas parade down Victoria Avenue. The parade has become one of the biggest annual events held in Whanganui. This year the parade will be followed by a family orientated concert in Moutoa Gardens/Pakaitore.

BS.209Santa or Christmas parades are now a regular part of our Christmas traditions and take place throughout New Zealand in November or December each year.  Santa Clause made his commercial debut in New Zealand in 1894 at Wellington’s DIC Store on Lambton Quay.  The other main centres soon picked up on the idea and by the early 1900s most had their own parades. Christmas parades were originally established by department stores to announce the arrival of in-store Santas with the clear aim of drawing customers directly into their stores and increasing their sales.

Christmas Ad Wanganui Herald 9 Dec 1909In 1909 George Kersley’s Wanganui store “The Economic’ advertised the appearance of Mother and Father Christmas who arrived in Whanganui by motor car.  Particular department stores came to dominate parades held in the main centers – Farmers in Auckland, James Smith’s in Wellington and Hays in Christchurch.  Here in Whanganui some of the Christmas decorations that will be used in the parade later this month have come from DIC.  The reindeer date back to 1951.

By the late 1980s Christmas parades were becoming far too expensive for individual department stores to run.  Whanganui’s Christmas parade had been run by Streetwise for nearly two decades before the organisation of the parade was handed to Mainstreet.