Whanganui

Go-Ashore

 

This distinctive vessel is known as a “go-ashore” pot. The round shape and handles made it the ideal pot for cooking over an open fire, and were handy for sailors when going ashore for supplies.  These pots were often traded in exchange for timber or provisions and were offered as part of larger purchases. This particular pot is believed to have been part of the initial purchase of Whanganui.

1. Go-Ashore Pot

The “go-ashore” pot included with the payment for The New Zealand Company’s purchase of land to settle the town of Petre, later Whanganui. WRM Ref: TH.3527

The New Zealand Company was formed in London in 1825 with the express purpose of systematically colonizing New Zealand. Edward Gibbon Wakefield joined the project and envisioned a new-model English Society in the Southern Hemisphere. He planned to purchase land from indigenous populations at a low cost and sell it on to speculators and gentlemen settlers at higher rates. The buyers would in turn hire immigrant paupers and labourers who would break the land in and cater to their needs while saving up enough money to purchase their own piece of paradise after several years’ work.

After the turbulent settlement of Wellington in 1840, the New Zealand Company searched for more land to house the prospective settlers who had already purchased farms and homes. In November 1840, Edward Wakefield (son of Edward Gibbon Wakefield) began negotiations for the sale of 40,000 acres of land on the lower reaches of the Whanganui River from 27 local Māori chiefs. He named the site after Lord Petre (pronounced Peter), one of the directors of the New Zealand Company.

The purchase of the land was disorganised, unethical, and haphazard. Māori were paid in goods, including muskets, umbrellas, Jew’s harps and cooking pots, possibly including the one shown here. These goods, the purchase price of the land for Petre, reached a value of £700, the equivalent of less than $100,000 today.

2. Petre plan

A plan of the town of Petre, late Whanganui; commissioned by The New Zealand Company in 1842. WRM Ref: 1971.70.1

European settlers began to move in from February 1841, before the sale was completed in May. Many Māori were angered by the inundation of strangers and their demand for more land. Some Māori saw the settlement as “their town” while others were concerned that European settlement on the river might challenge those who held mana (traditional authority) over it. Others did not acknowledge any agreement had been made.

An enquiry was held to look into the purchase, and in 1844, Land Commissioner William Spain ruled against the New Zealand Company. He found the settlers had purchased land through the Company in good faith, but the Company’s dealings with Māori were far from satisfactory.

Rather than return the land, he ordered the New Zealand Company to pay monetary compensation to the Māori, but allowed the Company to establish the value themselves. Some chiefs refused to sell their portion of land regardless of what compensation was offered, but when Spain’s offers were refused, he stated that would not prevent the land from going to the settlers.

The Panoramic Photographer

Panorama of Wanganui N.Z. from Durie Hill, 1923 (2004.25)

Panorama of Wanganui N.Z. from Durie Hill, 1923 (2004.25)

The Panoramic Photographer – R P Moore Studio

From 1923 until 1931 the R P Moore studio operated from 80 Manners Street in Wellington and specialised in commissioned panoramic views of up to 200 degrees. R P Moore was, first and foremost, a commercial photographer. His undoubted success in business was not only the result of his ability to sell, but also due to the quality of the product. Sixty to seventy years later, many of his prints hang, still treasured, in the institutions, businesses and houses for which they were made.

The studio’s photographers traversed New Zealand on commissions from the Government Tourist Department. Before travelling to specific areas, they contacted the more established local firms, institutions and individual property owners, making their services known and thus securing further commissions.

Reception to Their Royal Highnesses, the Duke & Duchess of York, Wanganui, New Zealand, 1927 (1802.1611)

Reception to Their Royal Highnesses, the Duke & Duchess of York, Wanganui, New Zealand, 1927 (1802.1611)

The Camera and Negatives

The camera used by the Moore photographers was the most technologically superior available, the No. 10 Cirkut camera made by Graflex Inc., New York. By means of a clockwork motor, the camera traversed a circular track that gave a range of up to 360 degrees (although the Moore studio rarely exceeded 200 degrees). As the camera moved from one side to the other, taking up to a minute, the mechanism simultaneously unrolled the film, each exposure being the full height of the negative but only about 8mm wide. The photographer could only determine the direction and scope of the camera’s path. There was no viewfinder and the required exposure had to be guessed. The equipment included a tripod that could be extended up to almost five metres and which came with its own ladder.

The negatives, averaging a metre in width, generated seamless images of great clarity.  Because the extent of these views replicated the act of looking, the panorama prints were very saleable objects

Wanganui Swankers’ Club “Help the Blind” Appeal, 1923 (1802.4163)

Wanganui Swankers’ Club “Help the Blind” Appeal, 1923 (1802.4163)

R P Moore

Robert Percy Moore was born in Christchurch in 1881. Almost nothing is known of his early life, but he seems to have begun his photographic career in Australia. During World War I he was working in Queensland specialising in postcard views.

His earliest-known panoramas date from around 1919 when he had a studio in Sydney.  After eight years in Wellington from 1923 to 1931, he returned to Australia. He was back in New Zealand by 1936, because, from that year until 1941, he was based in Rotorua working in partnership with James Thompson at the Panora Studio. In 1941 he returned to Australia, and he died in Sydney seven years later.

Virgin Bush, Bushy Park Estate, Kai Iwi, 1923 (2006.37.1)

Virgin Bush, Bushy Park Estate, Kai Iwi, 1923 (2006.37.1)

The Panorama

We are so used to having pictures of landscapes around us it is hard to realise that such representations have been around for only the last 400 years. Until then landscape was used only as a background to stories about gods and goddesses or Christian stories. Pictures of landscape alone originated in 16th century Holland. The actual word “landscape”, as Simon Schama says in his recent book Landscape and Memory, “entered the English language, along with herring and bleached linen, as a Dutch import at the end of the sixteenth century.” Our experience of the landscape is of a big space, and consequently, over the past 400 years, landscape pictures have tried to get past the confines of the frame. It is the difference between looking at a view through a window and standing outside looking at the view.

By the beginning of the 18th century this had developed into a type of landscape picture known as “the view”. The aim was to show an actual place, in a way that created a sense of being there, by suggesting light and space. As the 18th century progressed “the view” picture developed into the panorama. This wider view had several origins. For instance, some of the earliest English examples were made by surveyors, and this practical charting of a real landscape is still part of the urge to make panoramas.

Panorama of Wanganui from Fire Brigade Tower on Bastia Hill, 1923 (1997.93)

Panorama of Wanganui from Fire Brigade Tower on Bastia Hill, 1923 (1997.93)

The panorama form developed further in the 19th century and became increasingly “photographic”. Although the processes of photography were not publicly announced until 1839, the earliest of them were discovered in the mid-1820s, and the first photographers automatically imitated the picture-making of the contemporary painters. From that time the panorama featured strongly in the history of photography right through to the end of the 1920s, and the work of the R P Moore studio represents a pinnacle of its achievement.  Since the mid-1980s, with a resurgence of interest in 19th century photographic forms and processes, the panorama has experienced a real revival.

By Peter Ireland

Peter Ireland is an artist and an independent curator with a special interest in photography

Wish you were here: Postcards and Postcard Albums

“Tom Thumb” No inscription or date

“Tom Thumb” No inscription or date

In the days before memes and instant messaging, postcards were a popular way to stay in contact. We still use them today, collecting them as souvenirs of places we’ve visited or things we’ve seen, and sending them to friends and family to make them jealous of our travels.

“A Jolly Xmas from Inglewood” Sent to Aunty Gladys from Mona on 2 December 1910

“A Jolly Xmas from Inglewood” Sent to Aunty Gladys from Mona on 2 December 1910

Postcards have been in use since the mid-1800s.They were designed as small letter cards, just big enough to carry a message without requiring an envelope, which reduced the postal fee. They became popular due to their convenience and cost effectiveness, and once they were able to be printed with a wide variety of images their popularity increased.

“The Weather Prophet” Sent to ‘Beaver Brad’ from Zillah O’Leary on 19 December 1908

“The Weather Prophet” Sent to ‘Beaver Brad’ from Zillah O’Leary on 19 December 1908

Postcards hit their height of popularity in the Edwardian era. In a time without telephones, urgency of contact was a priority and in Britain the post was delivered up to six times a day.  Postcards were used to send messages between friends, order deliveries to home or business, ask a favour, and even assist in courtships. You could write a postcard to a friend in the morning inviting them to dinner, and rest safe in the knowledge they would attend or send a return postcard with an apology before the table was set. It could be considered the equivalent of texting today.

“Best Christmas Wishes” Sent to Dear Mona from Mum (Zillah), undated

“Best Christmas Wishes” Sent to Dear Mona from Mum (Zillah), undated

Postcards started out as bland rectangular cards, with nothing permitted on the front except the address of the recipient. There was some concern that putting the address on the same side as the message would encourage mail sorters to read them. The rules gradually relaxed and the strict official cards evolved into the pictorial postcards mail items we know today – the front emblazoned with an image, poem, or witty comic, and the reverse split with the message on one side and the address on the other.

“The Glad Eye” sent to ‘Miss so and so’ from ‘so and so’; undated

“The Glad Eye” sent to ‘Miss so and so’ from ‘so and so’; undated

But it is not just the sending of the postcard that is important, but the receiving. And it was quite common for postcards to be collected and sorted into albums for posterity. Series of cards were created and the collector aimed to complete the set; different countries, different subjects, even celebrities. At one stage it was fashionable to print news stories on the cards; and some would be printed and ready for sale within hours of a news event occurring.

“The Christian Congregation in Jagadhri” No inscription or date

“The Christian Congregation in Jagadhri” No inscription or date

Postcards were often sent for the sole purpose of collecting, and many a collection would feature a card with the message “for your collection” or similar on the reverse, or even blank as it had been bought for the collection specifically, rather than the post box.

“To Be Delivered” No inscription or date

“To Be Delivered” No inscription or date

The Whanganui Regional Museum holds several postcard albums, one of which came from the Freeman Estate. The postcards were collected and put into the album by Miss Mona Gladys Freeman, originally of Marton, then of Niblett Street in Whanganui. Mona was born on 22 January 1899 to parents John James and Zillah Ann Freeman and was quite young when she collected the cards, which were sent in the early 1900s. The album holds 313 postcards, some of which are visible here.

“Greetings From CHRISTCHURCH” Inscribed: Dear Miss Freeman, I have been longing and waiting for an introduction to you for some time now.  How about you meeting me tomorrow evening say about 7.30pm on the second step of W. Post-office. I think we know each other well enough and I see you every morning coming to work. Do come, Your most Ardent Admirer C.G.B. Do come dear darling”. Undated.

“Greetings From CHRISTCHURCH” Inscribed: Dear Miss Freeman, I have been longing and waiting for an introduction to you for some time now. How about you meeting me tomorrow evening say about 7.30pm on the second step of W. Post-office. I think we know each other well enough and I see you every morning coming to work. Do come, Your most Ardent Admirer C.G.B. Do come dear darling”. Undated.

Whanganui Live!

Whanganui

In case you missed it on Saturday morning, the Director and the Curator of Natural History were interviewed by Kim Hill on Radio Live.  Kim Hill hosts the regular Saturday Morning programme and on 15th November visited Whanganui to air her show live from the Royal Opera house.  This was part if the ‘Smart21’ initiative which focuses on regional centres.

Listen to the interview with Dr Eric Dorfman, Director of the Whanganui Regional Museum, here as he talks about the job, his professional history, and the wonderful town he now lives in.

And listen to Mike Dickison, Curator of Natural History, here as he discusses the Museum’s amazing collection of Moa bones and taonga, the illicit trade of bones around the world, and his Wiki Wednesday project.

Not such a bad place after all

There has been a lot of discussion around the recent Sunday episode, claiming Whanganui was a ‘zombie town’ with no hope of recovery or prospect of happiness.  But we know that is simply not true!  And we are grateful to Campbell Live for taking the time to highlight the bright and prosperous aspects of our awesome town; the successful businesses, cheap housing, low overheads for manufacturers,  glass blowing, new buildings, not to mention a wonderful place to raise a family (and of course, the Museum!).

Take a look at the short feature and see for yourself.

http://www.tv3.co.nz/tabid/3692/MCat/2908/Default.aspx

The Lion Monument

 

If you look up the hill from Victoria Avenue towards toward the Sarjeant Gallery, you will see a lion sleeping on top of a stone platform.

MEM-022The lion’s origins begin in 1865 at Nukumaru where a skirmish saw the loss of 18 soldiers.  The custom at the time was to bury the men on the field where they fell, but after their temporary headstone and simple fence had rotted away, and sheep and cattle were found feeding over the graves, a movement began to have the men buried and honoured properly. In 1892 it was decided that the graves should be relocated to a more central area, a place more convenient to maintain, and the fallen were moved to a new plot on Queens Park. A Veteran’s Committee decided to erect a monument to remember the men, and to commemorate all those who served and died during the tumultuous land wars and on other battlefields.

The Government at the time agreed to assist funding the project pound-for-pound up to £100, and locals were appealed to for subscriptions to the cause. The Council also contributed a significant portion; the total amount of £300-400 was amassed.

War Veterans at the unveiling of the monument, 1893

War Veterans at the unveiling of the monument, 1893

A sleeping lion was chosen as an appropriate monument; the lion was a symbol of the British Empire, and the pose reflected the slumber of the fallen men. Whanganui artist George Sherriff designed and sculpted the creature from marble.  Although Sherriff was an accomplished painter, sculpting was a new form of art for him and the lion project was his learning experience. The base was carved from Waikawa bluestone by monumental mason W. McGill.

MEM-024The monument was initially erected at the top of Queens Park, near where the Sarjeant Gallery stands today. It was surrounded by a low fence and had a small pile of cannonballs from the HMS Calliope at each corner, and two cannon from the vessel stood guard beside the lion.

When the Sarjeant was built and opened in 1919, the lion was relocated toward the bottom of the hill. It is the focal point of the Veteran Steps, the stairway leading up to the gallery, and now lists the names of the original 18 soldiers as well as 138 imperial and colonial troops who died in and around Whanganui during the New Zealand Wars. Another 18 distinguished veteran names were added after 1908.

The monument after relocation, 1919

The monument after relocation, 1919

 

Sandi Black is the Archivist at Whanganui Regional Musuem.

New Zealand’s best kept secret

The Whanganui Regional Museum is just one feature of this amazing town with a great history.  A vibrant main street with quaint shops and little gems waiting to be discovered.  A great rural surrounding area with hidden attractions and new adventures waiting to be enjoyed.  A lively cultural sector with a lot to offer the mind.  Check out the video below and make a list of things to see the next time you pass through:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjzwKUDahmU&sns=fb

Whanganui – a great place o live, work, and play!

Monuments and Memorials

The Whanganui district has over 25 monuments and memorials dedicated to those who have served in the military services and to those who have made the ultimate sacrifice in defence of our country.

PR-007 Moutoa Memorial

Moutoa Memorial in around 1866 facing north-west

New Zealand’s first war memorial stands in Moutoa Gardens/Pākaitore. The Moutoa Memorial, a weeping woman as the personification of grief, commemorates the fifteen kūpapa and one European who were killed at Moutoa Island, 80 kilometres up the Whanganui River, on 14 May 1864.

The Superintendent of Wellington Province, Dr Isaac Featherston, unveiled the memorial on 26 December 1865. Some 500 to 600 Māori, representing iwi from Whanganui to Wellington, and many Pākehā attended the ceremony. Unlike many later war memorials, it was not made to order, and was in fact purchased from Huxley & Parker of Melbourne by Featherston during a visit to Australia in early 1865.

The Moutoa Flag features a Union Jack, a crown surrounded by laurel leaves and the word “Moutoa” with a Māori and a European hand clasped in friendship. The original flag was subscribed for and made by the women of Whanganui, Rangitīkei and Manawatū to their own design, and gifted to local iwi. The sewing group was led by Mrs Logan, the wife of Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Abraham Logan, the commander of the imperial troops based in Whanganui.

Queens Park School with the entrance gates, which still stand today

Queens Park School with the entrance gates, which still stand today

There are also other obvious memorials. The Queens Park School Gates are a memorial to pupils from the school that died while serving during World War I. The Queens Park School Roll of Honour is located in the entrance to the Wanganui District Library in Queens Park.

Model of the proposed Durie Hill Tower with pointed top

Model of the proposed Durie Hill Tower with pointed top

Proposed plan for a Wanganui District Soldiers’ Memorial, incorporating a hall of memories

Proposed plan for a Wanganui District Soldiers’ Memorial, incorporating a hall of memories

The Durie Hill Tower just after completion

The Durie Hill Tower just after completion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Durie Hill Tower was built as a war memorial to commemorate more than 500 servicemen from Whanganui who died in World War I. There was some disagreement about where to build the memorial. Some wanted a cenotaph in Queens Park while others wanted a lookout tower on Durie Hill. In the end both were built. The Wanganui Borough Council built the Cenotaph and the Wanganui County memorial was the tower. There were several plans for the Durie Hill Tower. One showed the tower with a point at the top and a perpetual light while another included a hall of memories. A lack of funding meant that a simplified version of the tower was eventually built. The Durie Hill Tower was unveiled on Anzac Day 1925.

The Wanganui Drill Hall April 1954

The Wanganui Drill Hall April 1954

The Whanganui Cenotaph in around 1924 with a group of people inspecting the wreaths laid for the Dawn Service

The Whanganui Cenotaph in around 1924 with a group of people inspecting the wreaths laid for the Dawn Service

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1936 Whanganui was the first city in New Zealand to hold a Dawn Service. The Wanganui Chronicle tells us that over 100 former servicemen gathered before dawn outside the Drill Hall in Maria Place. Once formed up they marched to the Cenotaph in Queens Park where Padre W H Austin conducted the service before Bugler Alex Bogle played Reveille. As the sun began to rise the men placed poppies on the Cenotaph before marching back to the Drill Hall and then returning home.

Kyle Dalton is the External Relations Officer at Whanganui